In Chicago Before History by Charles W. Markman, the following is stated:
"Chicago is located where the drainage areas of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers meet the Great Lakes. The Chicago Lake Plain, particularly the south side of Cook County, encompasses extensive marshes where prehistoric sites occur in high density. While the prairies of northern Illinois and Indiana were a zone of unpredictable and relatively sparse resources, the well-watered Lake Plain was an oasis of fish, edible plants and aquatic animals that was of great importance to the prehistoric people of the region."

"Significant to the prosperity of prehistoric peoples is the region described as morainal--this region was once the high-ground adjacent to and staging above flood-levels from overflow of Lake Michigan/Chicago Lake Plain. What this means is that  peoples living within this zone
had access to extensive shoreline resources. The morainal ground is heavily cut by freshwater streams--run-off from higher ground, demarked as the Kankakee Plain. The availability of quantities of fresh water is crucial to survival of larger groups of people. The time-frame when this region's terrain offered such resources is dated to the Paleo- and Early Archaic-Indian Periods, ca. 12,000 to 7,000 years Before Present (BP)."

"The Chicago Lake Plain has yeilded very little in the way of artifactual evidence of prehistoric occupation. In contrast, and contradicting previous studies, the morainal zone has produced more artifacts than had been thought possible--and to boot, the significant balance of artifacts currently being recorded by Margo Hupe are from the Paleo- and Early Archaic-Periods. There seems, at least thus far, to be a greater number of sites representing these periods than there are later ones--a significant point in understanding prehistoric peoples' usage of resources, and one which demarks the region as probably less suitable during later periods to support large groups of people for long periods." 

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